Human Anatomy and Physiology



Overview and Homeostasis

Organelles- specialized ____________ of cells that perform aspects of life functions.

Cells- simplest units of structure and __________ in living things

Tissues- __________ of cells specialized to do certain jobs in our body

Organ- structure made of _______ that has a major role in life function

Organ System- ______ of organs that work together to do a job.

______________ or Specialization- cells contain all the _______ to be all kinds of cells- nerve, bone, skin, etc. Only those needed are “turned on” the rest are "turned ______".

Homeostasis- all of these items above must interact to create a balanced internal environment within living organisms. Our bodies have the ability to detect slight changes internally or externally and make changes to correct any deviations. The maintainance of a stable environment is called homeostasis or dynamic equilibrium.


Digestive System (aka GI tract)

The Digestive and Excretory System

Crash Course on Digestion

Food is broken down so that it is _________ enough to enter body tissues and cells.

Digestive System of a Grasshopper

Digestive system is one-way passage through the body. Tube within a _______.


Human Digestive System

YouTube Video on Digestive System

Mouth- injests food.

Esophogus- tube that connects ________ to stomach

Stomach- muscular sac with gastric juices- HCl and digestive enzymes.

Small Intestine- 6.5 m long coiled tube.

Liver- creates bile and stores in gallbladder) to break down ________

Gall Bladder- Secretes bile into the small intestine. Gallstones are hardened deposits of cholesterol.

Pancreas- manufactures and secretes pancreatic digestive enzymes to break down food and pancreatic juice (pH 8) to ___________ it. The pancreas digestive secretions directly into the small intestines.


Large Intestine- 1.5 m tube.

  1. Reabsorbs _______ from undigested food (85%) to create solid waste (fecus).
  2. Absorbs Vit K made from intestinal __________
  3. Held in ___________ until time to exit!

Sugar goes right into the digestive system immediately. Everything else needs to be broken down first.

Vocabulary Review

alimentary canal
GI tract
gastric juices
intestinal juices
large intestine
small intestine

Essential Questions

  1. How is the shape of the human digestive tract similar to a grasshoppers?
  2. How does food move through the human digestive system (hopefully)?
  3. What part do enzymes play in the digestion of food?
  4. What are some common ailments of the GI tract?



Crash Course on Excretory System

Excretion= Removal of metabolic ___________ from the body.



Skin (Sweat Glands)



Kidney Coloring


The Nephron


Testing urine proves if substances like ______ have been in a person's system recently.
Finding certain substances in the urine, like ________, can indicate a problem like diabetes.


Malfunctions of the Excretory System

If you loose your kidneys you need to have your blood ___________ by dialysis.

Vocabulary Review

Essential Questions

  1. How does the kidney maintan homeostasis?
  2. How is urine formed?
  3. What does the liver filter out of the blood?
  4. Which structure readsorbs water and minerals from blood?
  5. What kind of things are in sweat?
  6. What are some common diseases of the excretory system?


Homework assignment:

Research online one of the above GI tract or excretory illnesses (or one of your own) and answer the following questions:

      1. How is the disease/ailment caused?
      2. What does it do to the human body?
      3. Are their remedies or cures?



Crash Course on Circulatory and Respiratory System

The circulatory system consists of the heart, blood and blood _________.

Blood Vessels

There are three types of blood vessels:

Arteries, not veins are used to measure pulse.


Circulation of the heart

More fun facts!

Cardiovascular Diseases

High blood pressure- makes the heart work harder and can lead to many problems such as ____________ of the blood vessels and heart muscle.

Atherosclerosis occurs when fatty plaque deposits _______ _____ on the walls of blood vessels.

Stroke occurs when the _________ flow to part of your brain stops.

Cardiovascular diseases can be prevented through the avoidance of smoking, regular ___________, keeping your blood pressure low and balanced _________.

Hemophilia is a genetic disorder that causes defected clotting factor proteins, leading to the inability to clot blood.


Vocabulary Review


Essential Questions

1. What are some common diseases of the circulatory system?

2. How can your protect yourself against heart disease?




Blood is composed of 55% plasma and 45% red blood cells, __________ blood cells and platelets.

Plasma is made up primarily of ________, but also contains salts, nutrients, hormones, and many other substances. It transports EVERYTHING except for oxygen.

Red blood cells transport __________. Hemoglobin is a protein located on red blood cells that binds to oxygen in the lungs and transports it to the tissues where the oxygen gets released. They are produced in the bone marrow.

Sickle cell anemia is a genetic disease where the red blood cells are crescent shaped and can't carry oxygen. The symptoms can be deadly.

White blood cells fight disease. When you are ________, the number of white blood cells in the blood increases to help fight infection. They are produced from stem cells in bone marrow. They contain no hemoglobin.

White blood cells are the main components of the immune system. Different white blood cells have different roles.

Platelets clot the blood. Platelets are fragments of blood cells.

Platelets become _________ when they come into contact with broken blood vessels. This causes clotting factors to be released, which can produce ____________ filaments called fibrins. The strands of fibrin act like a ______ and form a blood clot, which stops blood flow.


Respiratory System

Crash Course on Circulatory and Respiratory System


The main organ of the respiratory system is the _________.


Respiratory Diseases

Many respiratory diseases can be caused by smoking.

Chronic bronchitis is when the bronchi become swollen and clogged with _________.

Emphysema is when your lungs lose their ___________, making it extremely difficult to breathe.

Lung cancer is when the cells of your lungs spontaneously divide, and divide and divide. Smoking cigarettes can be _________.

Anemia is when your blood is low in _________.

Leukemia is __________ of the cells that produce white blood cells.


Part II:




Crash Course on Skeletons

Crash Course on Muscles

Bones and Skeletons

Bones- hard and _inflexible_ connective tissue

Two types

Cartilage- _flexible_, fiborous connective tissue that is elastic

Cartilage provides:

Muscle- cells _contract_ and exert a pulling force.

Skeletal muscle

Smooth muscle

Cardiac muscle

Tendons connect muscle to muscle while ligaments connect bone to muscle. The lack of blood circulating in a bone is why it takes often takes longer to heal from a ligament injury then one in the tendon,

Malfunctions of Bones and Muscles

Arthritis- stiffness and _pain_ in joints
Tendonitis- _inflammation_ of tendons

Kevin Ware's Leg injury. Watch if you dare!!



The Nervous System and Drugs

Crash Course on Nervous System


Nerves allows organisms to detect and respond to stimuli by transmitting _electrical_ impulses cell to cell.

Structure and Function of a Neuron

Structures and their Functions

Central Nervous System- Brain and Spinal Cord

Spinal Cord


A huge mass of _neurons_ inside the cranium

Three divisions:


  • _Interpretes_ sensory impulses
  • origin of _conscious_ activities
    • memory, thinking and reasoning


  • coordinates _motor_ activities
  • helps maintain _balance_

Medulla oblongata

  • controls _involutary_ activities
    • breathing
    • heart beat
    • blood pressure
    • coughing
    • digestive organs

Peripheral Nervous System- All the other nerves!

Two types:

Somatic nerves- your body nerves that controls _voluntary_ muscles

Autonomic nerves- nerves in your body that are NOT under conscious control

Nerves interwork together. First a nerve picks up a message (receptor neuron) and then passes it to a interneuron. A 3rd neuron sends the message from the interneuron to the nerve in the muscle tissue to evoke a response.

Human Behavior

Involuntary behavior- no conscious control

Simple reflexes- automatic, _inborn_ behavior

Conditioned behavior- _learned_ behavior

Habits- _repetition_ of an action that establishes pathways for nervous impulses

Voluntary behavior- conscious control

Uses _memories_, association of ideas, _imagination_ of possible results of actions and judges which particular response to take


Malfunctions of the Nervous System

Meningitis- _inflammation_ of membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord (caused by bacteria or virus)

Cerebral palsy- damage to _motor_ centers of the brain

Polio- disease of the spinal cord nerves caused by a _virus_

Distroys motor neurons in spinal cord and causes paralysis of the muscles controlled by those neurons


My Stroke of Insight Video


Endocrine System


Crash Course on the Endocrine System

Cell Membrane Receptors

Hormonal Regulation

Hormonal Feedback Mechanism

Malfunctions of the Endocrine Glands




Immune System and Disease


Crash Course on Immune System

Great website on Immune Response


Homeostasis in an organism is constantly threatened. Failure to respond effectively can result in disease, _illness or death_.

The immune response is the defensive reaction of the body to foreign substances or organisms. The immune system also protects against some cancer cells which may arise in the body.

Some Causes of Disease

Living organisms which cause disease are known as pathogens.


Other factors may be involved which contribute to or cause the body to develop disease.


Smoking, _lack of exercise_, and over consumption of alcoholic beverages would be a few examples of poor personal choices which may have immediate or long term consequences for our health.

Immunity and Disease

An antigen is any foreign substance which _enters_ the body of an organism, while a pathogen is a living antigen (such as viruses or bacteria) which invade an organism.

Many different kinds of white blood cells exist which are able to help the body fight foreign invaders in various ways. These various ways include:


First line: Keep the pathogens out

Second Line: The inflammatory response a generalized reaction to infection

Third Line: A specific attack on pathogens and infected cells

Immune System Memory


Allergies and Auto-immune Diseases

AIDS, Cancer, and Disease Research

Blood Types