Urbanization and Transportation

 

Urbanization- the movement of people from rural areas to the ______ and the transformation of land use and society that accompany it.

  • Nearly half the people in the world now live in _______ areas
  • By the end of the 21st Century 80-90% will live in urbanized areas

Rural area- most residents depend on ____________ or other ways of harvesting and natural resources for their livelihood

Urban area- a majority of the people are not directly dependent on __________ resource based occupations

City- a differentiated community with a population and resource base large enough to
___________ in arts, crafts, services rather than natural resource based occupations, freedom to experiment, be upwardly mobile and break from restrictions, but can be harsh and impersonal

Mega-city- beyond about 10 ___________ inhabitants

World Urbanization

  • 19th and early 20th centuries- US undergoes major shift to _________ living.
  • Many developing countries are experiencing similar demographic movement
  • In 1850 only ___% of the world's population lived in cities
  • 2000- ____% live in cities
  • Africa and ____________ are urbanizing at the fastest rate (even though most of the population is still rural).
  • 90% of population growth in next 25 years is expected to occur is ______________ countries- mostly in already overcrowded cities of poor countries such as India, China and Brazil

Causes of Urban Growth

2 ways that urban populations can grow

  • Natural increase- more ________ than deaths
  • Immigration

Natural increase is fueled by improved _______ supplies, better sanitation, and advances in _________ care. Reduced death rates can cause populations to grow both in cities and rural areas around them

Immigration to cities can be caused by push factors (force people out of the country) pull
factors (draw them into the city)

Push factors- people migrate from rural areas for many reasons

  • Countryside can not ________ massive populations
  • "Surplus" population is forced to migrate to cities because of lack of jobs. Economic forces or political, religious or racial conflicts can also drive people out of their homes
  • UN estimated that in 1992 at least 10 million fled their native country and that another 30-40
    million were internal refugees within their own countries, displaced by ___________, economic or social instability
  • Land tenure patterns and changes in agriculture also play a role in pushing people into cities

Pull factors- city life seems alluring to many people

  • Jobs, housing, education, entertainment and __________ of constraints of village traditions
  • Possibilities exist in the city for upward _________ mobility, prestige of _________ not ordinarily available in the countryside
  • City supports specialization in arts, crafts, and __________, which do not exist elsewhere

 

Current Urban Problems in the developing world

  • Problems will occur especially in largest cities, which already have trouble supplying __________, jobs and basic services for their residents
  • Traffic and congestion- in less developed countries there is an overwhelming amount of
    pedestrians and __________ that clog the streets (motorcycles have replaced bicycles).
    • Noise, congestion and confusion of traffic make it seem suicidal to venture into the street
  • Air pollution- dense traffic, smoky factories and use of wood/coal fires create thick _______ in the world's super cities
  • Lenient pollution laws, corrupt officials, inadequate testing equipment, ignorance about the
    sources and lack of funds to correct the situations cause the problem

Sewer systems and water pollution

  • Modern waste treatment systems are too __________ to build for rapidly growing populations
  • 35% of urban residents in developing countries have sanitary systems
  • 400 million people (________) of the population in developing cities have safe drinking water
  • Many rivers and streams, little more than open ___________, used for washing clothes, cooking, bathing, and drinking
    • Diarrhea, dysentery, typhoid, cholera are widespread diseases
    • Infant mortality high

Current problems in the developed world:

  • Urban ________- pattern of urban growth where cities spread out and consume open space and waste resources
    • Caused by our previously cheap oil, car culture
      • Traffic increases and commuting time increases.
        • Traffic congestion costs the U.S. 78 ________ dollars in wasted time and fuel.
          • Because of stop and go traffic, air pollution increases much faster than driving without changing speed. Carbon dioxide and smog levels are increased.
          • Fuel costs skyrocket when traffic bottlenecks.
      • Atlanta, Georgia (1990-2000) 32% growth- In some metropolitan areas, _____ of land is used for automobiles
      • National Highway System in US covers 160,000 miles
  • Ecosystem impacts are high as open space is ____________
    • In a study of 213 American urban areas, David Russ found that between 1960 and 1990 total population grew 47% while land use increased by _______%
  • Sprawl causes the city to be unable to maintain its _____________ (schools, parks, streets and other buildings fall into disrepair
  • Schools become overcrowded
  • Urban blight (decay) is caused by poverty and negligence of property owners in the inner city.
  • The wealthy move to the suburbs and the tax base for the city goes down.

Sustainable Community Design:

Green buildings and Green cities

  • _________ Growth- proposed by many urban planners, makes effective and efficient use of land resources and existing infrastructure, aims to provide a mix of land uses to create a variety of __________ housing choices and opportunities.
  • Goal: not to block growth, but to channel it to areas where it can be ____________ in the long term. Protects environmental quality by ___________ farmland, wetlands and _______ space. Portland, Oregon has a boundary on ___________ expansion and is considered one of the best cities in America because of its urban amenities. Build UP not out.
    • Between 1970-1990, the population grew 50%, land use only grew by ___%.
  • Garden Cities- neighborhoods separate from the central city by a green belt of forests and fields.
    • Bring back the parks, greenbelts and pedestrian friendly walkways!
  • Give tax rebates on solar energy
  • Save water by xeriscaping
  • Place public transportation next to housing
  • Use recycling materials when building
  • Bring back railroads and canals!
    • Canals connect two bodies of water and need to be repeatedly dredged to take out silt and clay that fills the canal through erosion.

Design for Open Space

  • Conservation Development- ________ housing (nature neighborhoods) or open space zoning preserves at least half of the subdivision is natural spaces, farmland etc.
    • Ian McHarg, Frederic Steiner and Randall Arendt have led these movements in places such as Farmview, PA, Hawksnest, WI

Sustainable Development in the Third World

  • Immediate needs are housing, clean ________, sanitation, ______, education, health care and basic ___________ for the residents
  • Redistribute unproductive land
  • Some people believe that social ________ and sustainable _________ development are the answers, because if people have the opportunity and money to buy better housing, adequate food, clean water, sanitation and other things they need for a decent life, they will do so.