Urbanization and Transportation
Urbanization- the movement of people from rural areas to the ______ and the transformation of land use and society that accompany it.
- Nearly half the people in the world now live in _______ areas
- By the end of the 21st Century 80-90% will live in urbanized
Rural area- most residents depend on ____________ or other ways
of harvesting and natural resources for their livelihood
Urban area- a majority of the people are not directly dependent
on __________ resource based occupations
City- a differentiated community with a population and resource
base large enough to
___________ in arts, crafts, services rather than natural resource
based occupations, freedom to experiment, be upwardly mobile and break from restrictions, but can
be harsh and impersonal
Mega-city- beyond about 10 ___________ inhabitants
- 19th and early 20th centuries- US undergoes major shift to _________ living.
- Many developing countries are experiencing similar demographic
- In 1850 only ___% of the world's population lived in cities
- 2000- ____% live in cities
- Africa and ____________ are urbanizing at the fastest rate (even though most of the population is still rural).
- 90% of population growth in next 25 years is expected to occur is ______________ countries- mostly in already overcrowded cities of poor countries such as India, China
Causes of Urban Growth
2 ways that urban populations can grow
- Natural increase- more
________ than deaths
Natural increase is fueled by improved _______ supplies, better
sanitation, and advances in _________ care. Reduced death rates can cause populations to grow
both in cities and rural areas around them
Immigration to cities can be caused by push factors (force people
out of the country) pull
factors (draw them into the city)
Push factors- people migrate from rural areas for many reasons
- Countryside can not ________ massive populations
- "Surplus" population is forced to migrate to cities
because of lack of jobs.
Economic forces or political, religious or racial conflicts can also drive
people out of their homes
- UN estimated that in 1992 at least 10 million fled their native
country and that another 30-40
million were internal refugees within their own countries, displaced
by ___________, economic or social instability
- Land tenure patterns and changes in agriculture also play a role
in pushing people into cities
Pull factors- city life seems alluring to many people
- Jobs, housing, education, entertainment and __________ of constraints of village
- Possibilities exist in the city for upward _________ mobility, prestige
of _________ not ordinarily available in the countryside
- City supports specialization in arts, crafts, and __________, which
do not exist elsewhere
Current Urban Problems in the developing world
- Problems will occur especially in largest cities, which already
have trouble supplying __________, jobs and basic services for their residents
- Traffic and congestion- in less developed countries there is an
overwhelming amount of
pedestrians and __________ that clog the streets (motorcycles have replaced bicycles).
- Noise, congestion and confusion of traffic make it seem suicidal
to venture into the street
- Air pollution- dense traffic, smoky factories and use of wood/coal
fires create thick _______ in the world's super cities
- Lenient pollution laws, corrupt officials, inadequate testing
equipment, ignorance about the
sources and lack of funds to correct the situations cause the
Sewer systems and water pollution
- Modern waste treatment systems are too __________ to build for
rapidly growing populations
- 35% of urban residents in developing countries have sanitary
- 400 million people (________) of the population in developing
cities have safe drinking water
- Many rivers and streams, little more than open ___________, used for
washing clothes, cooking, bathing, and drinking
- Diarrhea, dysentery, typhoid, cholera are widespread diseases
- Infant mortality high
Current problems in the developed world:
- Urban ________- pattern of urban growth where cities spread out
and consume open space and waste resources
- Caused by our previously cheap oil, car culture
- Traffic increases and commuting time increases.
- Traffic congestion costs the U.S. 78 ________ dollars in wasted
time and fuel.
- Because of stop and go traffic, air pollution increases much faster than driving without changing speed. Carbon dioxide and smog levels are increased.
- Fuel costs skyrocket when traffic bottlenecks.
- Atlanta, Georgia (1990-2000) 32% growth- In some metropolitan areas, _____ of land is used for automobiles
- National Highway System in US covers 160,000 miles
- Ecosystem impacts are high as open space is ____________
- In a study of 213 American urban areas, David Russ found that
between 1960 and 1990 total population grew 47% while land use increased by _______%
- Sprawl causes the city to be unable to maintain its _____________
(schools, parks, streets and
other buildings fall into disrepair
- Schools become overcrowded
- Urban blight (decay) is caused by poverty and negligence of property owners in the inner city.
- The wealthy move to the suburbs and the tax base for the city goes down.
Sustainable Community Design:
Green buildings and Green cities
- _________ Growth- proposed by many urban planners, makes effective
and efficient use of land
resources and existing infrastructure, aims to provide a mix of
land uses to create a variety of
__________ housing choices and opportunities.
- Goal: not to block
growth, but to channel it to areas where it can be ____________ in the long term. Protects environmental
quality by ___________ farmland, wetlands and _______ space. Portland, Oregon has a boundary
on ___________ expansion and is considered one of the best cities in America because of its urban
amenities. Build UP not out.
- Between 1970-1990, the population grew 50%, land use only grew by ___%.
- Garden Cities- neighborhoods separate from the central city by
a green belt of forests and
- Bring back the parks, greenbelts and pedestrian friendly walkways!
- Give tax rebates on solar energy
- Save water by xeriscaping
- Place public transportation next to housing
- Use recycling materials when building
- Bring back railroads and canals!
- Canals connect two bodies of water and need to be repeatedly dredged to take out silt and clay that fills the canal through erosion.
Design for Open Space
- Conservation Development- ________ housing (nature neighborhoods) or open space zoning
preserves at least half of the subdivision is natural spaces, farmland etc.
- Ian McHarg, Frederic Steiner and Randall Arendt have led these
movements in places such as Farmview, PA, Hawksnest, WI
Sustainable Development in the Third World
- Immediate needs are housing, clean ________, sanitation, ______, education,
health care and basic
___________ for the residents
- Redistribute unproductive land
- Some people believe that social ________ and sustainable _________
development are the answers, because if people have the opportunity and money to buy better
housing, adequate food, clean water, sanitation and other things they need for a decent life, they
will do so.