Mid-term Review
APES


Environmental Understanding, Ethics & Philosophy

Key Vocabulary
Aesthetics
Anthropocentric
Conservation
Intrinsic (Inherent) value
Preservation
NIMBY (not in my backyard)

Review Questions
Know general world population data such as total population, most populated countries and percent wealthy and acutely poor.
What is the population of the U.S. and the world?

 

Matter, Energy and Life

Key Vocabulary
Abiotic
Aerobic respiration
Ammonification
Assimilation
Autotroph
Biomass
Biotic
Carbon cycle
Carnivore
Consumers
Decomposers
Denitrification
First law of thermodynamics
Food chain
Food web
Herbivore
Heterotroph
Legumes
Nitrification
Nitrogen fixation
Nutrient cycle
Nitrogen cycle
Omnivore
Phosphorous cycle
Photosynthesis
Primary consumer
Producer
Second law of thermodynamics
Secondary consumer
Species
Tertiary consumer
Trophic level

Review Questions
Know how the first and second law of thermodynamics govern ecosystem dynamics.
What is the difference between low and high quality energy?
Energy doesn’t recycle, but does matter?
Be able to make a food chain and food web for organisms in our area.
What are the major steps to the carbon cycle, nitrogen, phosphorus and water cycles? Which cycle slowly and which are quick?
What are the largest storage reservoirs for C, N, P and S?
Be able to diagram the tropic levels for organisms in our local ecosystem.
Know the names of each trophic level and be able to give examples.
Know the 10% rule of energy flow between trophic levels.
What is the ultimate source of energy for terrestrial ecosystems?
How is mankind changing the balance of C, N, P and S?

 

Biological Communities and Species Interaction

Key Vocabulary
Biome
Climax community
Commensalism
Competition
Control
Diversity
Ecological succession
Ecosystem
Edge Effect
Habitat
Interspecific competition
Intraspecific competition
Keystone species
Limiting factor
Mutualism
Natural selection
Niche
Parasitism
Pioneer species
Population
Predation
Primary productivity
Primary succession
Producers
Range of Tolerance
Resource partitioning
Richness
Secondary succession
Selective pressure
Species
Succession
Symbiosis
Tolerance limits
Variable

Review Questions
What are the various stages of ecological succession in our area?
What are the main types of species interactions?
What are the reasons for intraspecific and interspecific competition?
What factors influence community diversity?
How does abundance and diversity change in relation to latitude?
What are the differences between primary and secondary succession?
How does the edge effect impact biodiversity?

 

Biomes & Nature Preserve Management

Key Vocabulary
Biome
Coniferous
Corridors
Deciduous
Desert
Ecotourism
Ecosystem
Fragmentation
Habitat
Mitigate
Rainforest
Reclamation
Rehabilitation
Remediation
Restoration Ecology
Savanna
Taiga
Tundra
Wetlands

Essential Questions
A biome is a large distinct terrestrial region that shares which features in common?
What ARE the characteristics of each of the major biomes?
Where are the major biomes located?
What is the impact of park fragmentation on the diversity of the species?
What are the ways to protect, repair and manage ecological hot spots?
Why are wetlands so valuable as a resource?
Know the degree of restricted use (and multi-use) in
a. National Forest & National Resource lands,
b. National Wildlife Refuges,
c. National Wilderness Preservation System & National Parks
How has land use changed throughout human history?
What are some modern threats to our national parks?
What are some examples of environmental remediation versus migitation?

 

Biodiversity and Land Use

Key Vocabulary
Adaptation
Biodiversity
Captive Breeding
CITES (Convention on International Trade on Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna)
Clear-cutting
Deforestation
Desertification
Endangered species
Endangered Species Act (ESA)
Evolution
Exotic species
Extinction
Genetic Drift
HIPPO
Island Biogeography
Natural Selection
Overgrazing
Selective Cutting
Threatened species

Essential Questions
How do the mass extinctions in the pass differ from the rate of biodiversity loss experienced today? (Know the geological name of our present time period).
How long does it take biodiversity to recover after a mass extinction?
What are the major challenges to preserving the biodiversity on the planet?
What are some of the negative results of deforestation?
What characteristics do most endangered species share in terms of territory size requirements? What other features do many endangered species have in common?
The Endangered Species Act (ESA) identifies threatened and endangered species in the US and puts their protection ahead of _____________ considerations.
The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) lists species that cannot be commercially ___________ as live specimens or wildlife products.
Why do invasive species displace native species?
What is the impact of poor rangeland management?

 

Population Dynamics

Key Vocabulary
Arithmetic Growth
Biotic potential
Carrying capacity
Density-dependent factor
Density-independent factor
Exponential increase
Environmental resistance
J-curve
K strategist
Growth Rate
Population explosion
Population density
R strategist
S-curve
Survivorship

Essential Questions
Be able to interpret J and S-curve population curve diagrams.
How do you estimate the population of groups of organisms in a large area using the capture-recapture techniques?
What factors might regulate the biotic potential of an organism?
What are the differences between r-strategists and k-strategists?

 

Human Populations

Key Vocabulary
Age structure
Age structure histograms/ population pyramids
Birth rates
Birth control
Crude birth rate
Crude death rate
Death rate
Demographic transition
Developed countries
Developing countries
Doubling time
Infant mortality
Malthus
Replacement fertility level
Rule of 70
Survival Curves

Essential Questions
How has the world population changed over time?
What are some possible solutions to the soaring world population growth?
How does the growth rate of humans affect the use of world resources and health of the environment?
How do age structure diagrams, birth rates, death rates, infant mortality, male to female ratios and population growth change as a developing society becomes more industrialized?
How do you calculate the doubling time and the growth rate of human populations given birth and death rates?
What factors affect the birth and death rates of a society?

 

Environmental Health and Toxicology

Key Vocabulary
Acute
Bioaccumulation
Biomagnification
Chronic
Half-life
HAZMAT (hazardous material)
LD50
Morbidity
Mortality
Mutagenic
Radioactive decay
Radioisotope
Synergistic
Threshold level of toxicity
Toxicology
Teratogen

Essential Questions
What are the biggest biological and chemical threats to human life? How do the threats to Americans differ from people who live in places like Mali, India or Iraq!
What are the most tragic cases of life lost by toxic disasters around the world?
How do you measure the concentration of the toxicity of a substance?
What is the significance of the LD50 dose and the threshold level of toxicity?
How does the damage to an organism differ between a chronic and an acute dose of a toxin?
What information is given in a dose-response curve graph?
A mutagen, teratogen and carcinogen all affect humans in what ways? Would that be considered a hereditary illness?
How does the amount of radioactive material change with each consecutive half life?

 

Environmental Geology

Key Vocabulary
Convection
Convergent plate boundary
Core
Crust
Divergent plate boundary
Erosion
Geologic time line
Mantle
Plate tectonics
Rock Cycle
Subduction
Tectonic plates
Weathering

Essential Questions
How did plate tectonics affect the diversity of organisms in terms of habitat change and evolution?
How do volcanic eruptions affect weather patterns?
How does the pattern of volcanoes and earthquakes relate to plate tectonics?
What major land forms are created by the different types of plate boundaries.
Know the geologic time line- the major periods and eras of the Earth’s history and when each major life form appeared.
Know how each rock type formed and what are the most common elements in the Earth’s crust.
Know the layers of the Earth.

 

Food and Agriculture

Key Vocabulary
Aquaculture
Biotechnology
Capillary action
Compost
Contour plowing
Crop rotation
Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)
Green revolution
Humus
Illuviation
Infiltration
Industrial Revolution
Leaching
Loam
Monoculture
No-till agriculture
Organic Food
Organic Fertilizer
Parent Material
Percolation/ Permeability
Sand
Sediment
Slash-and-burn agriculture
Soil Horizons
Strip cropping
Subsistence farming
Subsoil
Sustainable agriculture
Terracing
Topsoil
Weathering

Essential Questions
What are the ways to retard soil erosion in agriculture?
What are the methods of mechanical and chemical weathering?
How is soil formed? How is humus formed?
What is the order of sediments from larger to smallest?
How do you identify the different soil types using the soil triangle?
What are the soil horizons in a soil profile and how does its soil composition change?
What kinds of soil hold water?
What do the three numbers on fertilizer packages refer to?
What components of the soil are important for growing healthy plants?
What kinds of soil hold the most water? Which kinds drain the fastest?
Why is monoculture and decreased genetic diversity in crops a problem in todays agriculture?
Should humans eat high or low on the food chain to lessen the impact on limited land resources?
What are the types of agriculture?
What are the human caloric requirements?
What percentage of people are overweight and obese in America?

 

Practice APES Free Response Questions