APES GREATEST HITS
MIDTERM REVIEW

* = not covered in 2015 mid-term

1. High Quality Energy: organized & concentrated, can perform useful work (ex fossil fuel & nuclear)
2. Low Quality Energy: disorganized, dispersed (heat in ocean or air wind, solar)
3. First Law of Thermodynamics: energy is neither created nor destroyed, but may be converted from one form to another
4. Second Law of Thermodynamics: when energy is changed from one form to another, some useful energy is always degraded into lower quality energy (usually heat)
5. Natural radioactive decay: unstable radioisotopes decay releasing gamma rays, alpha & beta particles
6. Half life: the time it takes for 1/2 the mass of a radioisotope to decay
7. Estimate of how long a radioactive isotope must be stored until it decays to a safe level: approximately 10 half-lives
8. Ore: a rock that contains a large enough concentration of a mineral making it profitable to mine
9. Mineral Reserve: identified deposits currently profitable to extract
10. Surface mining: cheaper & can remove more mineral, less hazardous to workers
11. Humus: organic, dark material remaining after decomposition by microorganisms
12. Leaching: removal of dissolved materials from soil by water moving downwards
13. Illuviation: deposit of leached material in lower soil layers (B)
14. Loam: perfect agricultural soil with equal portions of sand, silt, clay
15. Solutions to soil problems: conservation tillage, crop rotation, contour plowing, organic fertilizers
16. Nitrogen fixing: because atmospheric N cannot be used directly by plants it must first be converted into ammonia by bacteria
17. Ammonification: decomposers covert organic waste into ammonia
18. Nitrification: ammonia is converted to nitrate ions (NO-3)
19. Assimilation: inorganic N is converted into organic molecules such as DNA/amino acids & proteins
20. Denitrification: bacteria convert nitrate back into N
21. Phosphorus does not circulate as easily as N because: it does not exist as a gas, but is released by weathering of phosphate rocks
22. Because soils contain very little phosphorus: it is a major limiting factor for plant growth
23. Excess phosphorus is added to aquatic ecosystems by fertilizers placed on crop fields which leach into groundwater and runoff into streams
24. Photosynthesis: plants convert atmospheric C (CO2) into complex carbohydrates (glucose C6H12O6)
25. Aerobic respiration: oxygen consuming producers, consumers & decomposers break down complex organic compounds & convert C back into CO2
26. Largest reservoirs of C: carbonate rocks first, oceans second
27. Biotic/abiotic: living & nonliving components of an ecosystem
28. Producer/Autotroph: photosynthetic life
29. Major trophic levels: producers-primary consumer-secondary consumer-tertiary consumer
30. Energy flow in food webs: only 10% of the usable energy is transferred
31. Why is only 10% transferred: usable energy lost as heat (2nd law), not all biomass is digested & absorbed, predators expend energy to catch prey
32. Primary succession: development of communities in a lifeless area not previously inhabited by life (lava)
33. Secondary succession: life progresses where soil remains (clear cut forest)
34. Mutualism: symbiotic relationship where both partners benefit
35. Commensalism: symbiotic relationship where one partner benefits & the other is unaffected
36. Parasitism: relationship in which one partner obtains nutrients at the expense of the host
37. Biome: large distinct terrestrial region having similar climate, soil, plants & animals
38. Carrying capacity: the number of individuals that can be sustained in an area
39. R strategist: reproduce early, many small unprotected offspring
40. K strategist: reproduce late, few, cared for offspring
41. Natural selection: organisms that possess favorable adaptations pass them onto the next generation
42. Malthus: said human population cannot continue to increase .. consequences will be war, famine & disease
43. Doubling time: rule of 70 70 divided by the percent growth rate
44. Replacement level fertility: the number of children a couple must have to replace themselves (2.1 developed, 2.7 developing)
45. World Population is 7.2 billion
46. Preindustrial stage: birth & death rates high, population grows slowly, infant mortality high
47. Transitional stage: death rate lower, better health care, population grows fast
48. Industrial stage: decline in birth rate, population growth slows
49. Postindustrial stage: low birth & death rates
50. Age structure diagrams: (broad base, rapid growth)(narrow base, negative growth)(uniform shape, zero growth)
51. 1st & 2nd most populated countries: China & India. 3rd is U.S.
52. Most important thing affecting population growth: low status of women- give them education.
53. Ways to decrease birth rate: family planning, contraception, economic rewards & penalties
54. Minamata Disease: mental impairments caused by mercury poisoning in Japan
55. Love Canal, NY: chemicals buried in old canal and school & homes built over it causing birth defects & cancer
56. Keystone species: species whose role in an ecosystem are more important than others
57. Indicator species: species that serve as early warnings that an ecosystem is being damaged
58. Most endangered species: have a small range, require large territory or live on an island
*59. In natural ecosystems, 50-90% of pest species are kept under control by: predators, diseases, parasites
*60. Major insecticide groups and examples: (chlorinated hydrocarbons, DDT) (organophosphates, malathion) (carbamates, aldicarb)
*61. Pesticide pros: saves lives from insect transmitted disease, increases food supply, increases profits for farmers
*62. Pesticide cons: genetic resistance, ecosystem imbalance, pesticide treadmill, persistence, bioaccumulation, biological magnification
*63. Natural pest control: better agricultural practices, genetically resistant plants, natural enemies, biopesticides, sex attractants
64. Two most serious nuclear accidents: (Chernobyl, Ukraine) (Fukushima, Japan)
65. LD50: the amount of a chemical that kills 50% of the animals in a test population
66. Mutagen, Teratogen, Carcinogen: causes hereditary changes, Fetus deformities, cancer
67. Multiple use US public land: National Forest & National Resource lands
68. Moderately restricted use land: National Wildlife Refuges
69. Restricted Use lands: National Parks, National Wilderness Preservation System
70. Volcanoes and Earthquakes occur: at plate boundaries (divergent, spreading= mid-ocean ridges) (convergent= trenches or Himalayas) (transform, sliding= San Andreas)
71. Endangered Species Act: identifies threatened and endangered species in the US, and puts their protection ahead of economic considerations
72. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species: lists species that cannot be commercially traded as live specimens or wildlife products
*73. Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, Rodenticide Act: regulates the effectiveness of pesticides
*74. Food Quality Protection Act: set pesticide limits in food, & all active and inactive ingredients must be screened for estrogenic/endocrine effects
75. Study your notes and review sheets at LEAST three times!!!