Unit Test 4 Review

Air, Weather and Climate

Key Vocabulary
Carbon dioxide
Coriolis Effect
El Nino
ENSO El Nino Southern Oscillation
Global warming
Greenhouse effect
Greenhouse gases
La Nina

Essential Questions

  1. How is the energy from sunlight change once its hits the Earth?
  2. What are the layers of the atmosphere?
  3. What are the global wind patterns and how are they changed by the Coriolis Effect?
  4. What are the atmospheric/ocean interactions that affect rainfall?
  5. How does El Nino effect the Eastern and Western Pacific ocean?
  6. What affect does El Nino and La Nina have on global weather patterns?
  7. How does the greenhouse affect work, what are typical greenhouse gasses and their sources?
  8. How has the level of CO2 changed since the Industrial revolution?
  9. What percentage of C02 emissions does the US emit?
  10. How can we reduce the emission of greenhouse gasses?
  11. What are the global repercussions of the greenhouse affect?
  12. How is the climate shifting and how are species moving as a result?
  13. What is the composition and percentages of the first two elements in the air?


Air Pollution

Key Vocabulary
Acid deposition
Acid precipitation
CFC (Chlorofluorocarbons)
Clean Air Act
EPA- Environmental Protection Agency
Ground-level Ozone
Heat Island
Montreal Protocol Act
Nitric acid (NHO3)
Ozone (O3)
Ozone hole
PAN (peroxyacetylnitrates)
Photochemical smog
Sick building syndrome
Sulfric acid
Sulfur dioxide (SO2)
Temperature (Thermal) Inversion
Ultraviolet Radiation
Volatile organic compounds

Essential Questions

  1. What are the main primary and secondary sources of major air pollutants and their effects?
  2. How is smog formed?
  3. What are the main types and consequences of indoor air pollution in the developing versus the undeveloped countries?
  4. How can indoor air pollution be reduced?
  5. What are the measuring units of air pollution?
  6. How does deforestation effect C02 levels and why?
  7. What is the cause of acid rain? At what pH of rain is considered acid rain?
  8. What are the affects of acid rain on the water and land?
  9. How does acid rain kill fish?
  10. How can we remediate lakes that have become too acidic? Is this a long term solution?
  11. How do we reduce the emission of pollutants that cause acid rain?
  12. How do weather patterns affect the deposition of acid precipitation?
  13. How does the ozone form in the stratosphere and on the ground?
  14. What substance is causing the thinning of the ozone in the stratosphere?
  15. Why is the protection of the ozone layer important to us and to other living things?
  16. How is the ozone being protected?
  17. How do you remediate and reduce air pollution?
  18. What regulations do the Clean Air Act cover and what is its biggest threat?
  19. What is sick building syndrome and its causes?
  20. How does radon enter a home? How does the radon decrease over time due to half-life decay?
  21. How do heat islands and temperature inversions work?

Water Use and Management

Key Vocabulary
Cone of depression
Gray water
Groundwater remediation
Hydraulic gradient
Salt water intrusion
Storm water
Surface water
Water table
Watershed (drainage basin)

Essential Questions

  1. What are the most common pathways in the water cycle?
  2. What is the percent distribution of fresh and salt water on the Earth? Where is most of the fresh water located?
  3. What defines a watershed (water drainage basin)?
  4. Be able to illustrate a cross section of groundwater before and after heavy well pumping and be able to identify the zone of aeration, zone of saturation and the water table.
  5. How is the hydraulic gradient affected by wells?
  6. What are the consequences of groundwater depletion?
  7. What happens when the groundwater is depleted near the ocean?
  8. What is the biggest watershed in the US?
  9. What is the agricultural, industrial and domestic use of water?
  10. How can agriculture reduce water use?
  11. What indoor water conservation tips would you give to your family to cut down on your home water use?

Water Pollution

Key Vocabulary
Algae bloom
BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand)
Clean Water Act
Coliform bacteria
Cultural eutrophication
DO (Dissolved oxygen)
Fecal coliform test
Grit chamber
Heavy metal
Indicator organisms
Non-point source
PCB (polycholorinated biphenyls)
Point source
Primary sewage treatment
Secondary sewage treatment
Septic System
Thermal pollution
Treated sludge
Trickling filter system

Review Questions

  1. What are the types, sources, causes and effects of water pollution?
  2. How can aquatic insects be used to determine the level of pollution in a river or stream?
  3. What is the normal source of DO in water? Why does it fluctuate daily?
  4. Explain the process of eutrophication including its sources, immediate and long term consequences. How does it affect the levels of BOD and DO at the site of polluted effluent versus farther downstream?
  5. What is the relationship between BOD and DO?
  6. What are the main ground water pollution issues?
  7. How does logging effect local streams in terms of nitrogen level in the stream?
  8. Why is clean water less available globally?
  9. What are the ways that agriculture and private residents can reduce water pollution?
  10. How do we purify water?
  11. What is the flow chart and operations of a sewage treatment plant?
  12. What is the comparison of nitrogen, phosphorus, dissolved suspended solids, BOD, fecal coliform and toxic substances before and after sewage treatment?
  13. What would you be measuring if you tested for water acidity, salinity, turbidity, hardness, BOD, and DO?
  14. What are human feces NOT used on agricultural lands (besides the gross factor)
  15. How could a sewage treatment plant MAKE energy? (Anaerobic digestion of sludge creates what?)
  16. How does a domestic septic system work?


Noise Pollution

Key Vocabulary


Review Questions

  1. What are the sources of noise pollution?
  2. What are the effects of noise pollution?
  3. What control measures are used for noise pollution?