MID-TERM APES REVIEW

 

EARTH

Key Vocabulary
Convergent plate boundary
Crust
Divergent plate boundary
Igneous
Island Arcs
Lithosphere
Metamorphic
Plate tectonics
Sedimentary
Soil
Soil Horizons
Tectonic plates

Essential Questions
1. What major land forms are created by the different types of plate boundaries.

2. Know roughly where the different tectonic plate boundaries are on a world map

3. When do volcanic vs. non-volcanic mountains form at convergent boundaries?

4. Know how each rock type formed.

5. How do the hours of daylight change around the world at different latitudes at different seasons?

6. What are the ways to retard soil erosion in agriculture?

7. How do you read a soil composition diagram?

8. What are the soil horizons in a soil profile?

 

ATMOSPHERE

Key Vocabulary
El Nino/ Southern Oscilliation
Global warming
La Nina
Stratosphere
Troposphere

Essential Questions
1. What are the first two layers of the atmosphere?

2. What affect does El Nino and La Nina have on ocean water temperatures and anchovy populations?

3. Which two oceans experience the greatest weather changes due to El Nino and La Nina

4. What is the composition and percentages of the first two elements in the air?

5. What is the composition of the early atmosphere?

 

GLOBAL WATER RESOURE AND USE

Key Vocabulary
Drip irrigation
Drought
Eutrophication
Hydrologic cycle
Ogallala Aquifer
Rain shadow Effect
Saltwater intrusion
Water table
Watershed (drainage basin)

Essential Questions
1. What is the percent distribution of fresh and salt water on the Earth? Where is most of the fresh water located?

2. What defines a watershed (water drainage basin)?

3. What is the greatest domestic water use in the U.S.?

4. What indoor water conservation tips would you give to your family to cut down on your home water use?

5. Which group uses the most water in the US: agriculture, industry or residential?

6. Why are wetlands so valuable as a resource?

7. How do wetlands control flooding?

 

INTERACTIONS AMONG SPECIES

Key Vocabulary
Climax community
Commensalism
Competition
Community
Habitat
Indicator Species
Keystone species
Mutualism
Parasitism
Population
Predation
Primary productivity
Resource partitioning
Succession
Tolerance limits

Review Questions
1. What are the various stages of ecological succession in our area?

2. What are the main types of species interactions?

3. What limits species abundance?

4. How do abundance and diversity change in relation to latitude?

5. How does height in plants and percent canopy cover change with succession in a forest?

 

BIOMES

Key Vocabulary
Biome
Boreal Forest
Desert
Grassland
Habitat
Riparian
Savanna
Taiga
Temperate Forest
Tropical Rain Forest
Tundra
Wetlands

Essential Questions
1. A biome is a large distinct terrestrial region having what kind of similar features?

2. What are the characteristics of the major biomes of the Earth?

3. Generally where are the major biomes located?

 

BIODIVERSITY

Key Vocabulary
Natural Selection
Biodiversity
Endangered species
Extinction
HIPPO
Invasive species

Essential Questions
1. What are the major challenges to preserving the biodiversity on the planet?

2. What characteristics do most endangered species have in common?

3. Why do invasive species have such a field day in their new environment?

 

NATURAL BIOGEOCHEMICAL CYCLES

Key Vocabulary
Ammonification
Assimilation
Autotroph
Carbon Cycle
Conservation of Matter
Denitrification
First law of thermodynamics
Herbivore
Heterotroph
Law of Conservation of Matter
Nitrification
Nitrogen Cycle
Nitrogen fixation
Phosphorus cycle
Photosynthesis
Primary consumer
Second law of thermodynamics
Secondary consumer
Sulfur Cycle
Tertiary consumer
Trophic level

Review Questions
1. Know how the first and second law of thermodynamics govern ecosystem dynamics.

2. What is the difference between low and high quality energy? Know examples!

3. Energy doesn't recycle, but does matter?

4. What are the major steps to the nitrogen cycle and what are their chemical symbols?

5. What are the largest storage reservoirs for C, N, P and S?

6. Be able to diagram the tropic levels for organisms.

7. How is man changing the cycles of matter?

8. What is the ultimate source of energy for the terrestrial ecosystem?

 

POPULATION DYNAMICS

Key Vocabulary
Arthimetic growth
Biotic potential
Carrying capacity
Environmental resistance
Exponential growth
J-curve
K-strategist/ K-selected species
Overshoot
Population density
R-strategist/ R-selected species
S-curve

Essential Questions
1. What limiting factors might regulate the population growth of an organism?

2. What is the relationship between environmental resistance and carrying capacity?

3. What are the characteristics of a R-selected and K-selected species? Know examples.

HUMAN POPULATIONS

Key Vocabulary
Age structure histograms
Crude Birth rates
Crude Death rate
Demographic transition
Fertility Rate
Industrial stage
Infant mortality
Preindustrial stage
Rule of 70
Transitional stage

Essential Questions
1. What are the three most populated countries in the world?

2. What is the present world population?

3. What is the best solution to the soaring world population growth?

4. How do developed and underdeveloped countries differ in age structure, birth rates, infant mortality, death rates, male to female ratios and population growth?

5. Know how to read age structure diagrams. How does it indicate population increase, decrease and stability?

6. How do you calculate the doubling time of organisms? (Rule of 70)

7. How does the birth, death rate and population growth rate change as a developing society becomes more industrialized?

8. How do you determine the population growth rate for a country based on the crude birth rate and death rate?

 

AGRICULTURE

Key Vocabulary
Biological Pest Control
Contour plowing
Crop rotation
Genetically Modified Organisms
Green Revolution
Loam
Low-till Farming
Monoculture
Organic agriculture
Polyculture
Salinization
Sustainable agriculture

Essential Questions
1. Should humans eat high or low on the food chain to lessen the impact on limited land resources?

2. What are the types of agriculture?

3. How has genetic engineering effected crop production?

4. What are the benefits and drawbacks of GMO?

5. How can agriculture practices be made to be sustainable?

6. How does salinization lower agricultural crop production?

 

PEST CONTROL

Key Vocabulary
Bioaccumulation
Biomagnification
Broad-spectrum pesticide
DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane)
Herbicide
Insecticide
IPM (integrated pest management)
Persistent
Pesticide Treadmill

Essential Questions
1. What are the negative effects of pesticide use?

2. What are some alternatives to pesticides?

3. How can farmers reduce their exposure to pesticides?

4. How do persistant pesticides accumulate up the food chain? What is this phenomenon called?

5. What are some examples of IPM?

6. Explain why insects become more immune to repeated pesticide applications.

 

FORESTRY AND RANGELANDS

Key Vocabulary
Clear cutting
Crown Fire
Deforestation
Low-Temperature Fire
Northern Spotted Owl
Old Growth Forest
Overgrazing
Rangeland Management
Seed Tree Cutting
Selective Cutting
Shelterwood Cutting
Slash and Burn
Sustainable Forestry

Essential Questions
1. What are the ecological services that the forest provides to us?

2. How can one remove trees for timber with minimal damage to the ecosystem?

3. How can one remove trees for timber with maximum damage to the ecosystem?

4. What are the different types of forest management and what are their pros and cons?

5. What are the best methods of rangeland management?

6. Why did the Northern Spotted Owl become a controversial animal in the timber industry?

7. How can you identify an old growth forest?

8. What is the benefit of a controlled burn in a forest?

 

NATURE PRESERVES

Key Vocabulary
Corridors
Edge Effect
Fragmentation
Mitigation
National Forest
National Park
National Resource Lands
National Wilderness
National Wildlife Refuge
Reclamation
Remediation
Restoration
Wilderness Preservation Area

Essential Questions
1. What is the impact of park fragmentation on the diversity of the species?

2. What is the edge effect on species diversity?

3. Know the degree of restricted use and allowable uses in:

a. National Forest & National Resource lands,
b. National Wildlife Refuges
c. National Wilderness Preservation System & National Parks

4. Which federal agency overseas American wilderness areas?

 

MINING

Key Vocabulary
Contour Stripping
Dredging
Mountaintop Removal
Open Pit Mining
Shaft mining
Strip mining/ Area stripping
Tailings

Essential Questions
1. What are the advantages and disadvantages of surface mining vs mining underground in shafts?

 

FISHING

Key Vocabulary
Drift Nets
Fish Farms/Aquaculture
Purse-Seine
Trawling

Essential Questions
1. Which large scale fishing techniques (including fish farming) are the most and least damaging to the ocean biome?

2. What are the major fishing techniques and their drawbacks?

3. How is over fishing impacting fish populations around the world?